What is Naxalism? History of Maoist insurgency And step taken by indian government According Discuss report in Home ministry’s meeting in spetmber 2021 against maoist geophysically influence in 2010 spread across 96 district in 10 states. Today it has been reduced to 41 Districts only. Naxalism beginning footprint and ground security situation improvement reason to cental government has removed serveral District from ‘Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme‘.
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Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme For Naxalism
Central government reimburse expenditure by State in naxal-hit States. Rx-gratia payment of Civilians and security personal killed by Naxal. Mobility, logistics & communication expenses Of Central paramilitary and police Forces are also covered. According to Ministry database report in last decade, Left Wing Extremism (LWE) incidents have Decreased Rapidly. In 2009 about 2258 incidents were recorded.then to 2021 about incident 349 were recorded. In this period no of death 908 to decrease 110 no of death. Meny new Areas have also been identified where New problems are Emerging.
To stop cpi explanation plan ‘ 8 new District have been placed under the list of”District of Concern”. In this meeting home minister held the “lack of Development ” as the Primary Reasons for the re-emerged of LWE problem. After independence but no Primary development this area because Naxalism. Deal with this Extremism today, it is very important to ensure fast-paced Development of those regions. And revige categorization current LWE scenario one of realistic representation.
Naxalism- But where did it all begin ?
From which areas this LWE spread and become a serious Threat to the internal security of India? What was response of the center and the states and what is their outcomes?
Naxalites are “far-left radical communist” who rose with arms to Safeguard peasants interests against the Landlord in Post-independence india.
They belive that Indian Government is sem
i colonial, feudalistic and imperial entity that needs to be Overthrown. Lunch an armed struggle against Big Landlord and petty government officials to seize State power.
Naxalbari and historical Origin
The naxalites movement in India is one of the “longest and most lethal” homegrown insurgencies across the globe. This problem was started in 1950 in West Bengal a small village “Naxalbari“. And movement name is Naxal movement. In 1967 feudal law against communist presently revolt reform in Naxalism. This story start in Naxalbari today Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, chhatisgarh and odisha spread In this States. Central declared this region call to Red Corridor . Naxalism moment merged in 3 phases.
First phase : 1960 to 1973 Second phase : 1970 to 1994 Third phase : 2004 To 2015
Naxalism First Phase 1960 To 1973
At the initial phase, they were inspired from China’s cultural revolution but confined to the state of West Bengal and Andra Pradesh. In this time using power through seized land then for saving land to police she using armed. The initial rural activities eventually turned to ethnic caste, and class- Based political violence. Naxalites, led by Charu Mazumder , organised themselves under CPL-Marxist-Leninist(CPI-ML). CPI-ML seized to political power used Gorilla strategy.
He was arrested by the kolkata police in July 1972 and died during police custody it self. Due to Heavy crackdown by kolkata police , Naxalbari movement almost came to it’s End. In 1973 all naxal power eliminated by Kolkata police.in addition ,the central government also got involved in countering the Naxal Movement using Heavy counter- insurgency operations.
Naxalism Second phase : 1970 to 1994
In the second phase , the Naxal movement was disinterested into 40 smaller groups. In phase movement spred south-eastren State Andra Pradesh, Odisha, telengana. In second wave naxalites personal kidnapped landlord owner and in front villagers force to return land. The counter-insurgency operation by the government were mounted even more intensively in the second phase. Naxalites party ban to political parties and election.
New information of informant were setup and several rehabilitation programme were conducted to arrest the influence of the movement on rural youth. The intense government efforts resulted in the surrender of Nearly 9,000 Naxalites.
Naxalism Third phase : 2004 To 2015
Third and most significant phase was started 2004 and it lasted till 2011. This phase started in 2004 and 2005-2011 violence in peak. Mid -1990 to early 2000 different fringe Naxal groups came together to form a united front (people war groups PWG ) FOR ex- people’s war, party unity, Maoists communist center(MCC) . In 2004 communist party of India (Maoist-leninist) ,PWG, MAOISTS COMMUNIST Center of India (mcci). PWG was responsible for more violent attacks on security forces across the state of Andra Pradesh, chhatisgarh, odisha . Including in destroyed building , attacks on Civilian and security person. By the end of 2005 , the capacity of Naxalites to conduct lethal attacked increased considerably.
During this peak phase of Naxalites,they had influence over 200 district in the country. The ex prime minister of India Shri Manmohan Singh had termed Naxalism as the ” single biggest internal- security challange ever faced by our country”. Growth of it’s financial base ” in late 2000s, along with their influence ,the financial power of naxal also. Increased and reached up to 1500 crore. By 2010, Naxal were active in as meny as 9 States and they are still active in these 9 States.
In 7 State Bihar, jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha, chhatisgarh ,andra Pradesh, maharastra in strong foot print of Naxalites. Today in this between 9 States Andra Pradesh, Bihar, jharkhand, chhatisgarh wrost-affected state. If Madhya Pradesh, maharastra, odisha, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal partially affected states. Every time Andra Pradesh and Bihar heartbeat of PWG and MCC operation.
Central role in destroyed aim of Naxalism
The responsibility of counter-insurgency operations primarily llies with the states authorities.but central government support to back channel. For control successive governments Maoists insurgency provide all services . Financial support, paramilitary, intelligence and strategic direction including this service. The UPA government had set up the building blocks for anti Maoists response during its tenure between 2004-2014.
United progressive alliance (UPA) building blocks established for anti Maoists response. Current National democratic Alliance NDA Government important role play in Naxalism. Both are government are apply populatic-centric method and Enemy-centric methods
The law and order approach for Naxalism
Law and order approach has been predominant of the government’s counter-insurgency strategies working as key piller. It’s affected see In central paramilitary forces deployed in affected state 532 paramilitary companies. A security blueprint containing the 14 point policy was first issuesd by Dr. Manmohan Singh government in 2006. Under this policy destroyed all Maoists activities through deploying special forces.